All businesses need money. Where the money comes from is known as the sources of finance. Now there are two different types of sources of finance: internal (finance from inside the business) and external (finance from outside the business).
New businesses starting up need money to invest in long-term assets such as buildings and equipment. They also need cash to purchase materials, pay wages, and pay the ay- bills such as water and electricity.
Inexperienced entrepreneurs (or social entrepreneurs) often underestimate the capital needed for the everyday running of the business. Generally, for every £1000 required to establish the business, another £1000 is needed for day-to-day needs. This is why sources of finance are crucial for any business.
Sources of finance are equity, debt, debentures, retained earnings, term loans, working capital loans, letters of credit, euro issues, venture funding, etc. These sources of funds are used in different situations.
Alternatively, the business can sell assets (items it owns) that are no longer needed to free up cash. External sources of finance are found outside the business, eg from creditors or banks.
Internal Sources of Finance
Existing capital can be made to stretch further. The business may be able to negotiate to pay its bills later or work at getting cash in earlier from customers; the average small firm waits 75 days to be paid (i.e. two and a half months); if that period could be halved; it would provide a huge boost to cash flow.
Profit! Over 60% of business investments come from reinvested profit.
External Sources of Finance
If a business needs to generate more finance and can’t internally, it may seek external sources of finance. There are two types: loan capital and share capital.
1. Loan Capital
The most common way is through borrowing from a bank. This can be in a form of an overdraft or loan and is usually set over some time. It could be short (2-3 years), medium (3-5 years), or long-term (5+ years).
There will be an interest rate on the loan, either fixed or variable. The bank will demand collateral to provide security in case the loan cannot be repaid.
An overdraft is a very short-term loan. This lets the business be ‘overdrawn’ or ‘fall into the red’ in which to what extent is negotiated. Overdrafts have a much higher rate of interest than loans.
2. Share Capital
On the other hand, if the business is a limited company, it may look for additional share capital. This could come from private investors or venture capital funds. Venture capital providers are interested in investing in businesses with dynamic growth prospects.
They are willing to take a risk if a business fails or does well. The way it works is that a venture capitalist invests in ten businesses, five could flop, four do okay and one does amazingly well. Peter Theil, the original investor in Facebook, probably turned his $0.5 million investment into $200 million: a nice profit of 400%.
Once the business has become a public limited company, it can float onto the stock exchange where it can sell shares to the public.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Sources of Finance
Internal Sources Reinvested Profit
Profit can provide a return for investors in which investors plow back into the business to help it grow.
Does not have associated costs.
Does not have to be repaid, unlike loans.
No interest charges – May be limited which will constrain the rate at which the business expands.
Cash Squeezed Out by Day-to-Day Finance
Reduces the amount needed to be borrowed (cutting stocks, chasing up customers, or delaying payments to suppliers).
Very short-term solution.
Sale of Assets
Sold to raise cash.
Makes sense to dispose of underused assets.
Finance development without extra borrowing.
They can sell and lease it back.– Loses assets but has the use of cash.
External Sources – bank overdrafts
The firm only needs to borrow only when and as much as it needs.
Very expensive and banks can insist on being repaid within 24 hours.
Good way of boosting day-to-day finance.
Other businesses may be reluctant to trade with the business if they do not get paid in good time.
Usually want to contribute to the running of the business – bring in new experience and knowledge.
Requires a substantial part of the ownership of the company.
Finding finance may involve balancing conflicting interests. Internal sources of finance may be too limited to provide opportunities for business development. Obtaining external finance increases the money available, but has its downsides.
Borrowing too much can be risky. Raising extra share capital dilutes the control held by existing shareholders.
Having adequate and appropriate finance at each stage in the firm’s development will ensure it stays healthy.
Decisions about where to obtain the finance will be a matter of considering the business objectives, the stage of development of the business, and the reasons for the funding requirement. A well-run business plans ahead for its financing needs. To run out of cash suggests management incompetence.
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a) Collateral – an asset used as security for a loan. It can be sold by a lender if the borrower fails to pay back a loan.
b) Over-trading – when a firm expands without adequate and appropriate funding.
c) Public limited company (plc) – a company with limited liability, and shares that are available to the public. Its shares can be quoted on the stock market.
d) Share capital – business finance that has no guarantee of repayment or annual income, but gains a share of the control of the business and its potential profits.
e) Stock market – a market for buying and selling company shares. It supervises the issuing of shares by companies. It is also a second-hand market for stocks and shares.
d) Venture capital – high-risk capital invested in a combination of loans and shares, usually in a small, dynamic business.
In conclusion, an internal source of finance is the finance or capital which is generated internally by the business unlike finances such as loan which is externally arranged by banks or financial institutions.
The internal source of finance is retained profits, the sale of assets, and the reduction / controlling of working capital. Both sources are important in strengthening the capital base of the business.
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